Desired Effects:Euphoria, reduced anxiety, relaxation, pain relief.
Side Effects:Drowsiness, confusion, disorientation, nausea & sickness, itching and flushing of the skin, constipation.
Long term risks:Physical and psychological Dependence with repeated use. Many dihydrocodeine preparations contain analgesics such as paracetamol, which in high doses can be toxic to the liver.
Short term risks:Tolerance, accidents, overdose. As with codeine, intravenous administration should be avoided, as it could result in damage to veins and circulation, fluid on the lungs which can be very dangerous, and a serious allergic reaction that can result in death.
Parents & other relatives
Drug agencies also provide lots of advice and support to parents of people using these drugs. Many street agencies can provide relative support groups or counselling for family members, partners etc.